This page will include cited references as well as other peer-reviewed material relevant to fruit choice in birds, seed dispersal by birds, and the species covered in the accounts.

Aslan, C.E., and M. Rejmánek. 2010. Avian use of introduced plants: Ornithologist records illuminate interspecific associations and research needs. Ecological Applications 20:1005–1020.

Bartuszevige, A.M., and D.L. Gorchov. 2006. Avian seed dispersal of an invasive shrub. Biological Invasions 8:1013–1022.

Brand, M.H., J.M. Lehrer, and J.D. Lubell. 2012. Fecundity of Japanese Barberry (Berberis thunbergii) cultivars and their ability to invade a deciduous woodland. Invasive Plant Science and Management 5:464-476. 

Buckley, Y.M., S. Anderson, C.P. Catterall, R.T. Corlett, T. Engel, C.R. Gosper, R. Nathan, D.M. Richardson, M. Setter, O. Spiegel, G. Vivian-Smith, F.A. Voigt, J.E.S. Weir, and D.A. Westcott. 2006. Management of plant invasions mediated by frugivore interactions. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:848–857.

Davidar, P., and E.S. Morton. 1986. The relationship between fruit crop sizes and fruit removal rates by birds. Ecology 67:262–265.

Davison, V.E. 1942. Use of certain Elaeagnus species. The Auk 59:581–583.

Englund, R. 1993. Fruit Removal in Viburnum opulus: copious seed predation and sporadic massive seed dispersal in a temperate shrub. Oikos 67:503.

Flörchinger, M., J. Braun, K. Böhning-Gaese, and H.M. Schaefer. 2010. Fruit size, crop mass, and plant height explain differential fruit choice of primates and birds. Oecologia 164:151–161.

Gosper, C.R., C.D. Stansbury, and G. Vivian-Smith. 2005. Seed dispersal of fleshy-fruited invasive plants by birds: contributing factors and management options. Diversity and Distributions 11:549–558.

Gosper, C.R., and G. Vivian-Smith. 2009. The role of fruit traits of bird-dispersed plants in invasiveness and weed risk assessment. Diversity and Distributions 15:1037–1046.

Greenberg, C.H., and S.T. Walter. 2010. Fleshy fruit removal and nutritional composition of winter-fruiting plants: a comparison of non-native invasive and native species. Natural Areas Journal 30:312–321.

Hernández, Á. 2009. Birds and guelder rose Viburnum opulus: selective consumption and dispersal via regurgitation of small-sized fruits and seeds. Plant Ecology 203:111–122.

Hoppes, W.G. 1987. Pre- and post-foraging movements of frugivorous birds in an eastern deciduous forest woodland, USA. Oikos 49:281.

Hoppes, W.G. 1988. Seedfall pattern of several species of bird-dispersed plants in an Illinois woodland. Ecology 69:320–329.

Johnson, R.A., M.F. Willson, J.N. Thompson, and R.I. Bertin. 1985. Nutritional values of wild fruits and consumption by migrant frugivorous birds. Ecology 66:819–827.

Jones, E., and N.T. Wheelwright. 1987. Seasonal changes in the fruits of Viburnum opulus, a fleshy-fruited temperate-zone shrub. Canadian Journal of Botany 65:2291–2296.

Jung, R.E. 1992. Individual variation in fruit choice by American Robins (Turdus migratorius). The Auk 109:98–111.

Karazov, W.H., and D.J. Levey. 1990. Digestive system trade-offs and adaptations of frugivorous passerine birds. Physiological Zoology 63:1248–1270.

Kominami, Y., T. Sato, K. Takeshita, T. Manabe, A. Endo, and N. Noma. 2003. Classification of bird-dispersed plants by fruiting phenology, fruit size, and growth form in a primary lucidophyllous forest: an analysis, with implications for the conservation of fruit-bird interactions. Ornithological Science 2:3–23.

Levey, D.J., and C.M. del Rio. 2001. It takes guts (and more) to eat fruit: lessons from avian nutritional ecology. The Auk 118:819–831.

Malmborg, P.K., and M.F. Willson. 1988. Foraging ecology of avian frugivores and some consequences for seed dispersal in an Illinois woodlot. The Condor 90:173–186.

McCay, T., D. McCay, and J. Czajka. 2009. Deposition of exotic bird-dispersed seeds into three habitats of a fragmented landscape in the northeastern United States. Plant Ecology 203:59–67.

McDonnell, M.J., and E.W. Stiles. 1983. The structural complexity of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant species. Oecologia 56:109–116.

McDonnell, M.J. 1986. Old field vegetation height and the dispersal pattern of bird-disseminated woody plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 113:6–11.

Rodewald, P.G., M.C. Brittingham, and F.R. Moore. 2004. Stopover habitats of landbirds during fall: use of edge-dominated and early-successional forests. The Auk 121:1040–1055.

Sargent, S. 1990. Neighborhood effects on fruit removal by birds: a field experiment with Viburnum dentatum (Caprifoliaceae). Ecology 71:1289–1298.

Schaefer, H.M., V. Schmidt, and H. Winkler. 2003. Testing the defence trade-off hypothesis: how contents of nutrients and secondary compounds affect fruit removal. Oikos 102:318–328.

SMITH, S.B., K.H. McPherson, J.M. Backer, B.J. Pierce, D.W. Podlesak, and S.R. McWilliams. 2007. Fruit quality and consumption by songbirds during autumn migration. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119:419–428.

Sorensen, A.E. 1981. Interactions between birds and fruit in a temperate woodland. Oecologia 50:242–249.

Sorensen, A.E. 1983. Taste aversion and frugivore preference. Oecologia 56:117–120.

Stiles, E.W. 1980a. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist 116:670–688.

Stiles, E.W. 1980b. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist 116:670–688.

Stiles, E.W. 1993. The influence of pulp lipids on fruit preference by birds. Plant Ecology 107-108:227–235.

Suthers, H.B., J.M. Bickal, and P.G. Rodewald. 2000. Use of successional habitat and fruit resources by songbirds during autumn migration in central New Jersey. The Wilson Bulletin 112:249–260.

Vincent, M.A. 2005. On the spread and current distribution of Pyrus calleryana in the United States. Castanea 70:20–31.

Whelan, C.J., and M.F. Willson. 1994. Fruit choice in migrating north american birds: field and aviary experiments. Oikos 71:137.

White, D.W., and E.W. Stiles. 1992. Bird dispersal of fruits of species introduced into eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 70:1689–1696.

Willson, M.F., D.A. Graff, and C.J. Whelan. 1990. Color preferences of frugivorous birds in relation to the colors of fleshy fruits. The Condor 92:545.

Willson, M.F., and J.N. Thompson. 1982. Phenology and ecology of color in bird-dispersed fruits, or why some fruits are red when they are “green.” Canadian Journal of Botany 60:701–713.

Willson, M.F., and C.J. Whelan. 1993. Variation of dispersal phenology in a bird-dispersed shrub, Cornus drummondii. Ecological Monographs 63:151–172.

Witmer, M.C., and P.J. Van Soest. 1998. Contrasting digestive strategies of fruit-eating birds. Functional Ecology 12:728–741.

Witmer, M.C. 2001. Nutritional interactions and fruit removal: Cedar Waxwing consumption of Viburnum opulus fruits in spring. Ecology 82:3120–3130.