Other names: European Buckthorn, Eurasian Buckthorn, Waythorn
The seeds of F. caroliniana are very similar to and may not be distinguishable. Mean fruit diameter: 7.36 mm (n=260); mean number of seeds per fruit: 3.89 (n=185), based on samples collected at the Rouge River Bird Observatory, Dearborn, MI.
Seeds present in bird fecal samples at the Rouge River Bird Observatory, Dearborn, MI.
- Species profile at USDA Plants Database
- Michigan Flora online species profile
- University of Wisconsin-Steven Point Robert. W. Freckmann herbarium species profile
- Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Illinois species profile
- Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, Invasive.org species profile
- Plant Conservation Alliance Alien Plant Working Group Least Wanted
- Minnesota DNR web page on buckthorn
- ID of buckthorns (PDF; common and glossy) -- Rouge River Bird Observatory
- Buckthorn does not cause diarrhea in birds - Rouge River Bird Observatory
- Google Scholar search
- University of Wisconsin-Green Bay Cofrin Center for Biodiversity Herbarium species profile
* Listed as invasive in natural areas by the Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States.
(Numbers in photo captions are photo credits, listed in the "Photo Credits" tab at the top of the page)